Power Transfer by Volume Conduction: In Vitro Validated Analytical Models Predict DC Powers Above 1 mW in Injectable Implants

Tudela-Pi, Marc; Becerra-Fajardo, Laura; Garcia-Moreno, Aracelys; Minguillon, Jesus; Ivorra, Antoni

Publicación: IEEE ACCESS
VL / 8 - BP / 37808 - EP / 37820
Galvanic coupling, or more precisely volume conduction, has been recently studied by different research groups as a method for intrabody communications. However, only in a very few occasions its use for powering implants has been proposed and proper analyses of such capability are still lacking. We present the development and the <italic>in vitro</italic> validation of a set of analytical expressions able to estimate the maximum ac and dc powers attainable in elongated implants powered by volume conduction. In particular, the expressions do not describe the complete power transfer channel but the behavior of the implants when the presence of an electric field is assumed. The expressions and the <italic>in vitro</italic> models indicate that time-averaged powers above 1 mW can be readily obtained in very thin (diameter & x003C; 1 mm) and short (length & x003C; 15 mm) implants when ac fields that comply with safety standards are present in the tissues where the implants are located. The expressions and the <italic>in vitro</italic> models also indicate that the obtained dc power is maximized by delivering the ac field in the form of short bursts rather than continuously. The study results support the use of volume conduction as a safe option to power implants.

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