Heterometallic Titanium-Organic Frameworks by Metal-Induced Dynamic Topological Transformations

Padial, Natalia M.; Lerma-Berlanga, Belen; Almora-Barrios, Neyvis; Castells-Gil, Javier; da Silva, Ivan; de la Mata, Maria; Molina, Sergio, I; Hernandez-Saz, Jesus; Platero-Prats, Ana E.; Tatay, Sergio; Marti-Gastaldo, Carlos

VL / 142 - BP / 6638 - EP / 6648
Reticular chemistry has boosted the design of thousands of metal and covalent organic frameworks for unlimited chemical compositions, structures, and sizable porosities. The ability to generate porous materials at will on the basis of geometrical design concepts is responsible for the rapid growth of the field and the increasing number of applications derived. Despite their promising features, the synthesis of targeted homo- and heterometallic titanium-organic frameworks amenable to these principles is relentlessly limited by the high reactivity of this metal in solution that impedes the controlled assembly of titanium molecular clusters. We describe an unprecedented methodology for the synthesis of heterometallic titanium frameworks by metal-exchange reactions of MOF crystals at temperatures below those conventionally used in solvothermal synthesis. The combination of hard (titanium) and soft (calcium) metals in the heterometallic nodes of MUV-10(Ca) enables controlled metal exchange in soft positions for the generation of heterometallic secondary building units (SBUs) with variable nuclearity, controlled by the metal incorporated. The structural information encoded in the newly formed SBUs drives an MOF-to-MOF conversion into bipartite nets compatible with the connectivity of the organic linker originally present in the crystal. Our simulations show that this transformation has a thermodynamic origin and is controlled by the terminations of the (111) surfaces of the crystal. The reaction of MUV-10(Ca) with first-row transition metals permits the production of crystals of MUV-101(Fe,Co,Ni,Zn) and MUV-102(Cu), heterometallic titanium MOFs isostructural with archetypical solids such as MIL-100 and HKUST. In comparison to de novo synthesis, this metal-induced topological transformation provides control over the formation of hierarchical micro-/mesopore structures at different reaction times and enables the formation of heterometallic titanium MOFs not accessible under solvothermal conditions at high temperature, thus opening the door for the isolation of additional titanium heterometallic phases not linked exclusively to trimesate linkers.

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